Another wave of cannabis policy reform is expected next month as voters in five states—Arkansas, Maryland, Missouri, North Dakota and South Dakota—will make their voices heard on adult-use legalization on Election Day, Nov. 8.

It’s been a long road up to this point, with court challenges threatening to knock the cannabis measures off the ballot in Arkansas and Missouri, and South Dakota advocates paring down their initiative after the state’s Supreme Court overturned an adult-use legalization measure that passed in the 2020 election.

Adult-use legalization campaigns in three other states—Ohio, Oklahoma and Nebraska—tried and failed to land their initiatives on the 2022 ballot and are now looking to future elections.

RELATED: Five States Will See Voters Address Cannabis Legalization, But Three States Failed in Landing on the Ballot This Year. Why?

Here, we take a look at the five measures that are set to go before voters next month.

Arkansas (adult use):

Measure: Issue 4

Sponsor: Responsible Growth Arkansas


To legalized cannabis for adults 21 and older, including the possession of up to 1 ounce.To establish a licensed program for commercial cultivation and retail with a 10% “supplemental sales” tax with 15% of the revenue used to fund an annual stipend to all full-time law enforcement officers certified by the Commission on Law Enforcement Standards and Training. To authorize the Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) Division to regulate the industryExisting medical operators would be grandfathered into the expanded adult-use market, while an additional 12 cultivation and 40 retail licenses would be awarded through a lottery.


Democratic gubernatorial candidate Chris Jones; Libertarian gubernatorial candidate Ricky Dale Harrington Jr.; Lance Huey, a former Arkansas state police trooper; and former Democratic state Rep. Eddie Armstrong III, who filed the initiative and established Responsible Growth Arkansas.


Republican Gov. Asa Hutchinson; Republican gubernatorial candidate Sarah Huckabee Sanders; Melissa Futz, treasurer at Arkansas NORML; Arkansas Family Council; Safe and Secure Communities.

Read More: 2022 Election Preview: Arkansas Voters Will Cast Vote on Adult-Use Legalization in November

Maryland (adult use):

Measure: Question 4

Sponsor: State lawmakers approved the constitutional amendment via House Bill 1; Yes on 4 then formed as the leading campaign in support of Question 4.


To legalize the use of cannabis by adults 21 and older on or after July 1, 2023.To allow adults 21 and older to purchase and possess up to 1.5 ounces of cannabis, 12 grams of concentrate, 750 milligrams of delta-9 THC or two plants for personal use.To decriminalize the possession of up to 2.5 ounces as a civil offense opposed to a misdemeanor.


State Sen. William Ferguson IV (D); State Delegates Luke Clippinger (D) and Adrienne Jones (D).


State Sen. J.B. Jennings (R).

Read More: 2022 Election Preview: Maryland Appears Poised to Legalize Cannabis

Missouri (adult use):

Measure: Amendment 3

Sponsor: Legal Missouri 2022


To legalize the cultivation, manufacture, sale, delivery, possession, use and delivery of cannabis for adults 21 and older.To allow individuals convicted of nonviolent cannabis-related offenses to petition to be released from incarceration and/or have their records automatically expunged.To impose a 6% state sales tax on adult-use cannabis that would cover program costs, automatic expungement and allocate funds to veterans’ services, drug addiction treatment and Missouri’s public defender system.


American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) of Missouri; Empower Missouri; Missouri NORML; Missouri Medical Cannabis Trade Association; NAACP (Columbia, St. Louis County, and St. Louis City); Missouri Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers.


Republican Gov. Mike Parson; Democratic state Rep. Ashley Bland Manlove; Christina Thompson (with advocacy group ShowMe Cann-Freedom); Joy Sweeney (with Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America); Tim Gilio (of Missouri Marijuana Legalization Movement); Chris Hammann (New Haven police chief); Missouri NAACP; Missouri Association of Prosecuting Attorneys.

Read More: 2022 Election Preview: Dodging Supreme Court Interference, Missouri Voters Get Crack at Legalization

North Dakota (adult use):

Measure: Initiated Statutory Measure No. 2

Sponsor: New Approach North Dakota


To legalize the possession of up to 1 ounce of cannabis, 4 grams of concentrate and up to 500 milligrams of THC in infused products.To legalize the personal cultivation of up to three cannabis plants at cannabis residences.To establish a licensed industry for adult-use cannabis cultivation, processing, retail and testing laboratories; under the measure, seven cultivation facilities and 18 retailers would be licensed.To require the Department of Health and Human Services, or another department or agency designated by the state Legislature, to establish a licensed program by Oct. 1, 2023.


State Rep. Matthew Ruby (R); Edjon Data Service; GR Holdings OH-ND LLC; MRT Manufacturing LLC; Marijuana Policy Project (MPP); New Approach Advocacy Fund; Pure Dakota LLC; Strive Life Grand Forks.


Smart Approaches to Marijuana (SAM) (operating as Healthy and Productive North Dakota).

Read More: 2022 Election Preview: North Dakota Adult-Use Legalization Would Buttress Cannabis Reform in Middle America

South Dakota (adult use):

Measure: Initiated Measure 27

Sponsor: South Dakotans for Better Marijuana Laws


To legalize the possession, use and distribution of up to 1 ounce of cannabis or 8 grams of concentrate for adults 21 and older.To allow adults 21 and older to grow up to three cannabis plants at home for personal use, with no more than six plants allowed per private residence, but only in jurisdictions where there are no licensed dispensaries.


State Sens. Nicole Heenan (D), Sheryl Johnson (D), Liz Larson, Jessica Meyers (D), Michael Rohl (R), Kyle Schoenfish (R) and Susan Wismer (Independent); State Reps. Dan Andersson (D), Ryan Cwach (D), Erin Healy (D), Mike Huber (D), Greg Jamison (R), Margaret Kuipers (D), Gary Leighton (D), Gary Leighton (D), Wendy Mamer (D), Kahden Mooney (D), Kameron Nelson (D), Norma Rendon (D), Erin Royer (D), Cole Sartell (D), Christine Stephenson (D), Bret Swanson (D) and Kadyn Wittman (D); 2022 gubernatorial candidates Tracy Quint (Libertarian) and Jamie Smith (D).


State Sen. David Johnson (R); State Reps. Kirk Chaffee (R), Phil Jensen (R), David Jones (R), Jack Kolbeck (R), David Kull (R), Bud May (R), Brian Mulder (R), Neal Pinnow (R), Jim Stalzer (R) and Tom Sutton (R).

Read More: 2022 Election Preview: South Dakota Voters Get Second Chance at Adult-Use Cannabis Legalization


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